Very few of the items in the sample were exclusively focused on climate change or science (this will be further discussed in Section 6.2). It is therefore important to understand the context in which the references to climate change were located. A theme analysis was used to provide a broad sense of the context of the coverage and its framing. The theme of the entire item was coded, not just the sections relevant to climate change. The dominant theme was coded and then an additional theme, where relevant, was coded. 35% (2,971) of items had only one theme and were therefore single issue items.
- Politics Federal, state and local elections and politics, government and other discussions of how power is distributed.
- Policy Actions proposed to address issues or problems. In this report it is mostly concerned with proposals to mitigate or adapt to climate change or related issues, e.g. reduction of emissions including energy debate, transport, farming.
- Movements or protests Any organised public expression of dissatisfaction with an issue. Activism by organisations or protests to address climate change including Extinction Rebellion, Stop Adani, or school strikes.
- Business, industry or agriculture Concerned with issues that are primarily commercial and transactional in nature and where government is not central (otherwise this would be coded policy or politics), e.g. approach to carbon emissions by businesses of all kinds, activities of fossil fuel companies in relation to climate change.
- Science or environmental issues Reporting on climate science findings and climate change impacts on all aspects of the environment including air, forests, and local communities.
- Extreme weather and natural disasters A meteorological event that falls outside normal patterns e.g. prolonged drought or extreme heatwaves; a natural disaster occurring as a result of floods, bushfires, hurricanes, tornadoes, and tsunamis.
- Media coverage Reportage or commentary directed towards other media outlets and their coverage of particular issues, e.g. the ABC’s coverage of climate change or policy.
- COVID-19 Coverage about the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Other All other themes such as travel, religion, academia or sport.